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Vaccines
What's in a vaccine?
Ever wondered what's in a vaccine? Ever wondered if they are safe? Find out both sides of the vaccination story and make an informed choice.


NZ MOH news on meningococcal vaccine Meningococcal vaccine developments.
Ministry of Health's webpages dedicated to meningococcal disease and vaccination development. Currently, there is a trial running to develop a vaccine.

Contents This Page:
Vaccine contents
How Smallpox was eradicated
Has Vaccination Succeeded?
The Polyoma/Simian Virus SV40 bungle
How has Scarlet Fever been reduced without vaccination?
Bechamp and the Rife microscope
Vaccine Farms
Deciding Whether or not to Vaccinate


Informative websites:

NZ's Ministry of Health

NZ Ministry of Health Immunisation Handbook downloadable (947kb) in PDF format, Acrobat Reader.

National Vaccine Info Center, US

Bechamp, full book online

World Health Organisation

Vaccine and Contents:
The following is a list of some vaccines, their contents and possible benefits and risks from vaccination:
[Note:where thought necessary, definitions and explanations are supplied at the bottom of the page. If the font here is too large or too small for you, use your View,Font options on your browser to change it.]

The NZ Ministry Of Health states that adjuvants are added to some inactivated vaccines to enhance response. For instance, aluminium phosphate or aluminium hydroxide are contained in DTPH, DTP, DT and Td vaccines (DTPH, DTP, DT and Td stands for Diphteria-Tetanus-Pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b. Pertussis is whooping cough). These adjuvants are irritant to the skin and can cause reactions at the injection site subcutaneous tissue. However, there is no official evidence that aluminium given in this way either exceeds the safety levels approved by the World Health Organization, or has any other untoward effects.
VACCINE AND CONTENTS RISK OR BENEFIT? MAKE AN INFORMED CHOICE.
Measles, injection- Usually given as MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) combination.

Made from freeze-dried, live attenuated measles, mumps and rubella viruses.
Measles and mumps vaccines are grown on chick embryo cell cultures.
Rubella (German measles)and mumps vaccines are grown on human diploid cells.
Other possible contents:
sorbitol, neomycin (an antibiotic).
Measles outbreaks continue, despite vaccination programmes. Epidemics seem to occur every second year. The NZ Ministry of Health attributes this to an inadequate number of people being vaccinated. About 80% of children are currently vaccinated, but the NZ Ministry of Health says that 95% of the population need to be immune for prevention to be effective.
Polio, oral OPV-
("Sabin vaccine")
-
The polio vaccine of choice in New Zealand.

Made from live, attenuated (i.e. bred and weakened) polio virus, grown either on monkey kidney or human diploid cells.
Other possible contents:
Traces of neomycin sulphate (an antibiotic), streptomycin (an antibiotic), sorbitol (an artificial sweetener used in many diabetic commercial foods).
The idea is that the oral vaccine, by going through the gastrointestinal tract, causes local immunity as well as immunity within the body system. The virus may be excreted in the faeces for 6 to 8 weeks after the immunisation.

Note: during this period of time, the virus can infect anyone who is not immune to polio and comes into contact with the faeces. If this should occur, the risk of paralysis is more likely as the virus may be strengthened by its contact with a new individual ("fresh meat"). Also, it should be noted that adults are more likely to become paralysed through polio infection and vaccine-associated paralysis, than children are. It is acknowledged by the NZ Ministry of Health that those who are susceptible to infection of any sort ("immuno-suppressed"), are at risk if they are given the oral polio vaccine. In these cases, the polio vaccine injection is given instead.

A vaccinated person may get poliomyelitis from the vaccine itself and can still get poliomyelitis even if vaccinated, although the official figures are very low.

Polio, injection- ("Salk vaccine") given by intra-muscular injection.

Made from killed polio virus ("inactivated").
Other possible contents:
neomycin, streptomycin (both are antibiotics).
Does not prevent the gastro-intestinal tract from carrying the polio virus. Refer to previous polio risks section concerning polio vaccine risks also.
Whooping Cough (Bordetella pertussis)
Usually given as a combination vaccine of DTP or DTPH, being Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis and Haemophilus Influenzae Type B.
Killed whole cells ("inactivated"). Other contents:
thiomersal, aluminium phosphate, formaldehyde, ammonium sulphate, glycerol.
Whooping cough vaccine has had a bad press for some time now and it is not without some foundation. It has been seen to cause inconsolable high-pitched screaming, convulsions, and cyanosis (blueness of skin colour caused by lack of oxygen).
Read the WHO (World Health Organisation) information about the new acellular whooping cough vaccine. It may be a safer vaccine.
How Smallpox was Eradicated:
The World Health Organisation (WHO) began a campaign to rid the world of smallpox in 1967. They employed teams of young doctors, led by D.A. Henderson, to find people who had smallpox and vaccinate the communities around them. Sometimes they did this by force. However, this was apparently justified by the hope of eradicating smallpox. The smallpox eradication story is considered a success story for vaccination.
Has Vaccination Succeeded in eradicating infectious disease?
Although it is generally agreed that smallpox eradication has been a success story, the medical community does not agree about longterm effects of vaccination upon the individual, nor how it may affect a community in the longterm.
Polyoma/Simian Virus SV40:
The Polyoma virus (later related to the Simian virus, SV40) was found to be within the oral and injected polio vaccines given during the 1950's (vaccines used in New Zealand). A doctor of bacteriology, Bernice Eddy, warned the NIH (in USA) that the virus was in the vaccine and that there would be an epidemic of cancer by the year 2000. Was she right? You be the judge.
There is always a risk with anything in life. The important thing to decide is: Does the benefit of vaccinations outweigh the risk?
How has Scarlet Fever (Scarlatina) been reduced without vaccination?
This is interesting. How is it that Scarlet Fever, once a feared childhood disease, has become largely unheard of? Well, maybe it's because antibiotics cure it so easily. Scarlet Fever is caused by a haemolytic streptococcus which is readily treated by penicillin or sulpha drugs. However, even when it does appear, Scarlet Fever is now much decreased in severity. There is no vaccine for Scarlet Fever. Bechamp's alternative theory:
Vaccinations supposedly began with the discovery of bacteria by Pasteur. There is conflicting evidence that Bechamp may have discovered micro-organisms before Pasteur did so and that the Rife microscope shows that micro-organisms behave in a way which the electron microscope cannot reveal. If this is the case, it is possible that vaccinations may be accidentally introducing organisms into our bodies.
It is also possible that vaccination may have a longterm effect which is not immediately obvious. For example, the term "Post Polio Syndrome" covers a range of signs and symptoms which appear to afflict people who have had polio earlier in their life. Could the polio vaccination cause these same or similar effects? The signs and symptoms are similar to those experienced by people with RSI, OOS, fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome, or myalgic encephalitis.
Some practitioners believe that these effects are those which could be caused by any injury, a viral infection via natural means or even just old-age ("old-age" in itself is a mystery.). It may be that people who have had polio as a child are attributing other injuries/illnesses to their earlier polio illness. However, it is actually unknown whether or not the conditions above could also be the result or partial result of vaccinations.
Vaccine Farms:
WHO Database on Contract Vaccine Manufacturers
Update January, 2001: Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham have recently merged. This may mean that many vaccine/drug companies now come under one umbrella.
CSL Australia,
45 Poplar Road
Parkville Victoria 3052
Australia
Their website really only advertises themselves. There are no specifics about how their vaccines are made.

Serum Institute of India,
283 Mahatma Gandhi Road
Poona 411 001
India
This company may have recently been bought out by a larger conglomerate.

MMR Chiron Vaccines (Italy)
Via Fiorentina 1
53100 Siena
Italie
(No link is provided to this site to ascertain the contents and/or method used to form the vaccine but they are the only UN prequalified producer of the MMR vaccine, according to WHO.)
Bio Farma,
a company based in Indonesia.
Provides many vaccines and medical products.

MR (Measles Rubella combination):
Serum Institute of India
283 Mahatma Gandhi Road
Poona 411 001
India
(No link is provided to this site to ascertain the contents and/or method used to form the vaccine.)

Aventis Pasteur,
58 Avenue Leclerc
B.P. 7046
69348 Lyon Cedex 07
France
Provides many vaccines and medical products.

Deciding Whether or Not to Vaccinate:
Reported figures of infection from the vaccines themselves, appear to be very low. For example, the polio virus has reported less than 1 in 7 million doses as procuring paralytic polio (US figures). The figures are certainly impressive, as polio was a dreaded disease at the end of the 19th century and early 20th century. There is, though, debate as to whether or not polio was on the decrease anyway.
The other thing that has to be considered is, do the vaccines introduce other infection? For example, you may not get polio from the polio vaccine, but will you get something else? This is where the risk factor comes in to play, and our own beliefs. It has been postulated that Shaken Baby Syndrome may sometimes be the result of vaccines (especially combination vaccines). It has been argued that vaccines cause more risk than benefit. It is not an easy decision. We can only look at the evidence. Has health generally improved in countries where vaccinations were given? The answer is probably Yes. At least, in the short term. Whether or not the increase in cancer and other health problems like "post polio syndrome" can actually be related to the vaccinations, has yet to be proven.

Informed Choice:
Having presented the facts in an unbiased manner, NZWoman encourages people to make a properly informed decision about vaccination. Please also review the various links provided on this page before you make that choice for your children (and yourself).


Definitions and Explanations:
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Adjuvants:
Adjuvants are additives which are given to enhance the action of the vaccine.
Aluminium Content:
Aluminium has been fingered as a factor contributing to Alzheimer's Disease. This is because aluminium deposits have been found in the brain when this disease is present. WHO and our NZ Min of Health point out that it is unproven that there is a connection between vaccinations and Alzheimer's and that the aluminium content in vaccines is small. However, it is wise to remember that accumulated intake of aluminium may contribute to disease. Aluminium is also present in most deodorants, for example. Lipsticks may contain aluminium and lead also.
Attenuated Vaccines:
These are live organisms which have been weakened by cultivation over a long period. The idea is that,when vaccinated by these live "weakened" organisms, the body produces antibodies which protect us against the stronger variety.
Diploid Cells:
Diploid means "having the full or unreduced number of chromosomes characteristic of the species." These are apparently aborted foetuses. Correspondence to WHO (World Health Organisation) to ascertain the truth of this assertion has met with no response.
Formaldehyde:
Formaldehyde is a preservative and fungicide. It is present in many things around us, for example plywood, particle board, artificial silk, dyes, organic chemicals, glass mirrors, ceiling and wall insulation, waterproofed fabrics. It is used as a germicide and fungicide for vegetables and other plants, in the tanning and preserving of hides, to destroy flies and other insects, and to prevent mildew in wheat and rot in oats. It is used in very small amounts within some vaccines.
Sorbitol:
Sorbitol is an artificial sweetener used often in diabetic commercial foods.
Thiomersal:
Used as an ophthalmic preservative, a topical anti- infective and a topical veterinary antibacterial and antifungal agent. It is also used as a bacteriostat and a fungistat. According to the National Toxicology Program in US, this compound is toxic by ingestion and inhalation. It is an eye irritant. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of mercury, sodium oxide and sulfur oxides. Of course, the amount in a vaccine is very small. Update!! - the New Zealand magazine, "Investigate", has recently (July 2002) run an article which fingers thiomersal as being the culprit causing autism.

Please note that, while the writer is a registered general nurse, this article has been written solely for the purpose of empowering people to make their own informed decisions concerning vaccination, its known benefits and possible risks. As such, it is a thought-provoking document, not a medical consultation. In New Zealand, the decision to vaccinate is not compulsory but is encouraged. Other countries may have different laws.
Copyright NZWoman, 2002

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